From NPM to NWS in Europe

Geert Bouckaert


Even when NPM (New Public Management) was not fully implemented in continental Europe, it became clear that applying systematically performance driven market-type-mechanisms in the public sector was not really matching its administrative law framed system. Also, our future society and public sector will need a combined effort to ensure an inclusive service delivery, effective crises governance, and functional innovation. This will not be feasible with a pure market driven NPM, nor with a pure network driven NPG (New Public Governance). This contribution states that a neo-Weberian-State model has the capacity and the potential to deliver and ensure realizing the challenges for the future, following to the rule-of-law, in a democratic and inclusive way, from a ‘Whole of Government’ (WoG) perspective which is embedded in a ‘Whole of Society’ (WoS) context.


public sector reform; New Public Management; New Weberian State.

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